Female sexual abusers-California Megans Law

If a young teenage boy is seduced by an older women, he's considered by some to have got lucky. If a young girl is seduced by an older man, convention says she's been raped. Getting lucky with an older - not too old - woman is many young men's fantasy, so why ever make it a big deal? So powerful is society's need to believe males are always in control that men are condemned to play perpetual perpetrator, just as women must monopolise the role of victim. Irish courts recently heard three cases of child sex abuse by women and, excepting a case which involved extradition to the UK of a convicted female sex offender, no custodial sentence was imposed.

Female sexual abusers

Using a combination of official record and treatment files, Stephens et al. Growing up qbusers parental alcohol abuse: Exposure to childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Contrary to the other types, the attention-focus offender does abuesrs use manipulation. In the Clare case, where a yearold boy was seduced by an adult female, Dr Moosajee Bhamjee told the court the woman believed she was in love. The utility of the self-regulation model to re-integration planning. Purdue University Press. Shaver eds. Cortoni Female sexual abusers.

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The boy, whose name was withheld, had been in Thorp's seventh-grade social studies class and was one of the first participants in a nonprofit business Thorp ran called HUGS, Helping Underprivileged and Gifted Students, prosecutors Female sexual abusers. Child Welfare, LXI, However, in order to prevent future possible sexual abuse, schools and law enforcement are forced to be tough and take any sexual allegation seriously. S The The pts New. In the summer ofMcCandless pled guilty and was sentenced to forty-five 45 days in jail. The woman is believed to have lived with the student and his family for some time this year while going through a traumatic separation. Canadian Children's Rights Council The Canadian Children's Rights Council does very limited case advocacy and only then, specific to our mandate and current goals. This action caused Rice to kidnap Female sexual abusers child. A Kitchener woman has pleaded guilty to having sexual intercourse with her two teenage sons on separate occasions. Investigators stated McCandless plied the young man with alcohol and engaged in sexual activity with the boy mere feet away from other students. The pair was apprehended together after Rice and the Female sexual abusers decided to run away together and an Amber Alert was issued for the child. Paedophile and former Lostprophets singer Ian Watkins was jailed in for child sex offences including the attempted rape of Dirty young cum baby. During the time she had illicit email exchanges and movie dates with the child.

And every 9 minutes, that victim is a child.

  • The inquiry was a timely one.
  • We are the nation's leading resource and advocacy organization for crime victims and those who serve them.
  • While cultural stereotypes lead us to consider sexual offences by women as rare, a team of researchers at the UCLA School of Law have found this to be far from the truth.
  • We have compiled a teacher sex offender list of female teachers who slept with students and charged with having an inappropriate teacher and student relationship.

Child sexual abuse , also called child molestation , is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.

Child sexual abuse can occur in a variety of settings, including home, school, or work in places where child labor is common. The global prevalence of child sexual abuse has been estimated at The word pedophile is commonly applied indiscriminately to anyone who sexually abuses a child, [21] but child sexual offenders are not pedophiles unless they have a strong sexual interest in prepubescent children. Child sexual abuse can result in both short-term and long-term harm, including psychopathology in later life.

A well-documented, long-term negative effect is repeated or additional victimization in adolescence and adulthood. A specific characteristic pattern of symptoms has not been identified, [51] and there are several hypotheses about the causality of these associations. Child abuse , including sexual abuse, especially chronic abuse starting at early ages, has been found to be related to the development of high levels of dissociative symptoms, which includes amnesia for abuse memories.

Because child sexual abuse often occurs alongside other possibly confounding variables, such as poor family environment and physical abuse, [69] some scholars argue it is important to control for those variables in studies which measure the effects of sexual abuse. Kendler et al. Their examination of a small sample of CSA-discordant twins also supported a causal link between child sexual abuse and adult psychopathology; the CSA-exposed subjects had a consistently higher risk for psychopathologic disorders than their CSA non-exposed twins.

A meta-analysis by Bruce Rind et al. Depending on the age and size of the child, and the degree of force used, child sexual abuse may cause internal lacerations and bleeding. In severe cases, damage to internal organs may occur, which, in some cases, may cause death.

Child sexual abuse may cause infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Vaginitis has also been reported. Research has shown that traumatic stress, including stress caused by sexual abuse, causes notable changes in brain functioning and development. Ito et al. Some studies indicate that sexual or physical abuse in children can lead to the overexcitation of an undeveloped limbic system.

Male and female victims were similarly affected. Navalta et al. Because the abused subjects' verbal SAT scores were high, they hypothesized that the low math SAT scores could "stem from a defect in hemispheric integration.

Prevalence of parental child sexual abuse is difficult to assess due to secrecy and privacy; some estimates state that 20 million Americans have been victimized by parental incest as children. Commercial sexual exploitation of children CSEC is defined by the Declaration of the First World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, held in Stockholm in , as "sexual abuse by an adult accompanied by remuneration in cash or in kind to the child or third person s.

CSEC is particularly a problem in developing countries of Asia. In the United Kingdom, the term child sexual exploitation covers any form of sexual abuse which includes an exchange of a resource for sexual activity with a child. However, in the years since the birth of the concept of child sexual exploitation, the notion of exchange has been widened to include other types of gain, including love, acquisition of status and protection from harm.

Children who received supportive responses following disclosure had less traumatic symptoms and were abused for a shorter period of time than children who did not receive support. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry provides guidelines for what to say to the victim and what to do following the disclosure. Therefore, the parental caregiver teaches the child to mask his or her issues. In many jurisdictions, abuse that is suspected, not necessarily proven, requires reporting to child protection agencies, such as the Child Protection Services in the United States.

A private environment away from suspected abusers is desired for interviewing and examining. Leading statements that can distort the story are avoided. The initial approach to treating a person who has been a victim of sexual abuse is dependent upon several important factors:. The goal of treatment is not only to treat current mental health issues, and trauma related symptoms, but also to prevent future ones.

Children often present for treatment in one of several circumstances, including criminal investigations, custody battles, problematic behaviors, and referrals from child welfare agencies. The three major modalities for therapy with children and adolescents are family therapy , group therapy , and individual therapy.

Which course is used depends on a variety of factors that must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. For instance, treatment of young children generally requires strong parental involvement and can benefit from family therapy.

Roland C. He suggested that children who are victims of sexual abuse display a range of symptoms that include secrecy, helplessness, entrapment, accommodation, delayed and conflicted disclosure and recantation. Adults who have been sexually abused as children often present for treatment with a secondary mental health issue, which can include substance abuse , eating disorders , personality disorders , depression , and conflict in romantic or interpersonal relationships. Generally, the approach is to focus on the present problem, rather than the abuse itself.

For instance, a person with a history of sexual abuse suffering from severe depression would be treated for depression. However, there is often an emphasis on cognitive restructuring due to the deep-seated nature of the trauma.

Some newer techniques such as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing EMDR have been shown to be effective. Sexual abuse is associated with many sub-clinical behavioral issues as well, including re-victimization in the teenage years, a bipolar-like switching between sexual compulsion and shut-down, and distorted thinking on the subject of sexual abuse for instance, that it is common and happens to everyone.

When first presenting for treatment, the patient can be fully aware of their abuse as an event, but their appraisal of it is often distorted, such as believing that the event was unremarkable a form of isolation.

Frequently, victims do not make the connection between their abuse and their present pathology. Child sexual abuse prevention programmes were developed in the United States of America during the s. Some programme are delivered to children and can include one-to-one work [4] and group work. According to C. Early research in the s and s began to classify offenders based on their motivations and traits.

Groth and Birnbaum categorized child sexual offenders into two groups, "fixated" and "regressed". This study also showed that adult sexual orientation was not related to the sex of the victim targeted, e. Later work Holmes and Holmes, expanded on the types of offenders and their psychological profiles. They are divided as follows: []. Causal factors of child sex offenders are not known conclusively. The US Government Accountability Office concluded, "the existence of a cycle of sexual abuse was not established.

Offenders may use cognitive distortions to facilitate their offenses, such as minimization of the abuse, victim blaming , and excuses. Pedophilia is a condition in which an adult or older adolescent is primarily or exclusively attracted to prepubescent children, whether the attraction is acted upon or not.

In law enforcement , the term pedophile is sometimes used to describe those accused or convicted of child sexual abuse under sociolegal definitions of child including both prepubescent children and adolescents younger than the local age of consent ; [21] however, not all child sexual offenders are pedophiles and not all pedophiles engage in sexual abuse of children.

Recidivism rates for sex offenders are lower than for the general criminal population. The definition includes any sexual activity between children that occurs without consent , without equality, or due to coercion , [] whether the offender uses physical force, threats, trickery or emotional manipulation to compel cooperation. When sexual abuse is perpetrated by one sibling upon another, it is known as " intersibling abuse ", a form of incest. Unlike research on adult offenders, a strong causal relationship has been established between child and adolescent offenders and these offenders' own prior victimization, by either adults or other children.

Although there is no known cure for pedophilia, [] there are a number of treatments for pedophiles and child sexual abusers. Some of the treatments focus on attempting to change the sexual preference of pedophiles, while others focus on keeping pedophiles from committing child sexual abuse, or on keeping child sexual abusers from committing child sexual abuse again.

Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT , for example, aims to reduce attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that may increase the likelihood of sexual offenses against children. Its content varies widely between therapists, but a typical program might involve training in self-control, social competence and empathy, and use cognitive restructuring to change views on sex with children.

The evidence for cognitive behavioral therapy is mixed. Based on self-disclosure data , a meta-analysis of studies estimated a global prevalence of The rates of self-disclosed abuse for specific continents were as follows: []. A meta-analysis of 65 studies from 22 countries found a global prevalence of In that analysis, Africa had the highest prevalence rate of child sexual abuse A ten-country school-based study in southern Africa in found Rates among year-olds were Comparing the same schools in eight countries between and , age-standardised on the Botswana male sample, there was no significant decrease between and among females in any country and inconsistent changes among males.

The prevalence of child sexual abuse in Africa is compounded by the virgin cleansing myth that sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure a man of HIV or AIDS. The myth is prevalent in South Africa , Zimbabwe , [] Zambia and Nigeria and is being blamed for the high rate of sexual abuse against young children. Child rape is on the rise [ when? Child welfare groups believe that the number of unreported incidents could be up to 10 times that number.

The largest increase in attacks was against children under seven. The virgin cleansing myth is especially common in South Africa , which has the highest number of HIV-positive citizens in the world. Eastern Cape social worker Edith Kriel notes that "child abusers are often relatives of their victims — even their fathers and providers. A number of high-profile baby rapes appeared since including the fact that they required extensive reconstructive surgery to rebuild urinary, genital, abdominal, or tracheal systems.

In , a 9-month-old was raped and likely lost consciousness as the pain was too much to bear. One has been charged. The infant has required extensive reconstructive surgery. The 8-month-old infant's injuries were so extensive, increased attention on prosecution has occurred. In Bangladesh , child prostitutes are known to take the drug Oradexon , an over-the-counter steroid , usually used by farmers to fatten cattle, to make child prostitutes look larger and older.

According to social activists, the steroid can cause diabetes , high blood pressure and is highly addictive. In India, in what is termed 'caste slavery', an estimated , lower caste women and girls are groomed into prostitution as a family trade. They are groomed by their own families into prostitution often from birth, sometimes with younger girls stowed under beds to observe others at work. While boys are often preferred to girls in the country, with sex-selective abortions causing a skewed gender ratio, the birth of girls among some low caste villages built around caste slavery is celebrated as future breadwinners.

It looked at different forms of child abuse: physical abuse , sexual abuse and emotional abuse and girl child neglect in five evidence groups, namely, children in a family environment, children in school, children at work, children on the street and children in institutions. The study's [] main findings included: Among them, Children on the street, at work and in institutional care reported the highest incidence of sexual assault.

Spread the word. What a double standard! As Susan Koeppen observed on The Early Show Thursday, the majority of sex offenders are men, but it's the women who get a lot of the attention. Abbie Jane Swogger, age twenty- eight 28 , was a teacher at Highlands Senior High School in Natrona Heights, Pennsylvania before she was arrested for sexual conduct involving students and other minors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10 3 , She not only had a sexual relationship with her underage male student, a babies resulted from the relationship. A strong case for the need to identify female perpetrators can be found in Table 4, which presents the findings from a study of adolescent sex offenders by O'Brien

Female sexual abusers

Female sexual abusers

Female sexual abusers. Why do women abuse?

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Uncovering Female Child Sexual Offenders—Needs and Challenges for Practice and Research

S exual violence remains a serious social problem with devastating consequences. However, resource scarcity within the criminal justice system continues to impede the battle against sexual violence. The challenge of "making society safer" not only includes the need for resources, but also requires a comprehensive understanding of accurate offense patterns and risk. This knowledge may be used to devise offense typologies, or classification systems, that will inform decisions regarding investigation, sentencing, treatment and supervision.

Although other typologies exist, this chapter only includes the classification systems that have been empirically derived and validated.

Although not considered a classification system due to the dynamic nature of the offense pathways, the self-regulation model SRM was reviewed due to its clinical utility and relationship to risk. SRM has been validated using several offender populations and methodologies. Due to the limited scope of this chapter, this review focuses on adult sexual offenders, although some juvenile studies are included, where relevant.

Traditional typologies have been developed to provide a comprehensive understanding of deviant sexual behaviors required for treatment intervention and effective supervision. However, classifying sexual offenders has been shown to be problematic. Sexual offenders exhibit heterogeneous characteristics, yet they present with similar clinical problems or criminogenic needs e. Overall, traditional typologies have demonstrated considerable problems, as indicated by inadequate definitions and inconsistent research findings.

In this definition, coercion does not necessarily imply a direct threat. Indeed, a defining feature of child sexual abuse is the offender's perception that the sexual relationship is mutual and acceptable Groth, Child sexual abusers have been difficult to classify as they vary in economic status, gender, marital status, ethnicity and sexual orientation.

Indeed, Whitaker et al. Child sexual abusers display deficits in information-processing skills and maintain cognitive distortions to deny the impact of their offenses e. With respect to affect, child sexual abusers assault to alleviate anxiety, loneliness and depression. Not all individuals who sexually assault children are pedophiles.

Pedophilia consists of a sexual preference for children that may or may not lead to child sexual abuse e.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition American Psychiatric Association, , a diagnosis of pedophilia requires an individual to have recurrent, intense and sexually arousing fantasies, urges or behaviors directed toward a prepubescent child generally 13 years of age or younger over a period of at least six months; to have acted on these urges or to be distressed by them; and to be at least 16 years old and at least five years older than the child victim.

The World Health Organization, which publishes the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems WHO, defines Pedophilia as a sexual preference for children, boys or girls or both, usually of prepubertal or early pubertal by an adult. One of the first typologies was formulated from the delineation of pedophilic and nonpedophilic child sexual abuse. Groth, Hobson and Gary classified child sexual abusers based on the degree to which the sexual behavior is entrenched and the basis for psychological needs fixated-regressed typology.

The fixated offender prefers interaction and identifies with children socially and sexually Simon et al. These individuals often develop and maintain relationships with children to satisfy their sexual needs Conte, In contrast, regressed child sexual abusers prefer social and sexual interaction with adults; their sexual involvement with children is situational and occurs as a result of life stresses Simon et al.

The fixated-regressed typology has been incorporated into the current models of sexual offending e. One study showed that male child sexual abusers who assault males are twice as likely to recidivate in comparison to offenders who abuse females Quinsey, Yet, contradictory findings have also been reported in the literature.

Several studies found that child sexual abusers who sexually assault females report over twice as many victims as same-sex child offenders Abel et al. Overall, small sample sizes and reliance on official records have limited the extensive investigation of this group. Within this typology, child sexual abusers are also categorized based on their relationship to the victim i. According to Rice and Harris , intrafamilial child sexual abusers i.

Intrafamilial child sexual abusers are less likely to have antisocial tendencies e. Seto et al. These studies relied primarily on official records i. In addition, rapists often display the following criminogenic needs: intimacy deficits, negative peer influences, deficits in sexual and general self-regulation and offense-supportive attitudes e.

Rapists have been found to have a greater number of previous violent convictions, and they tend to use greater levels of aggression and force than child sexual abusers Bard et al. Rapists have been shown to resemble violent offenders or criminals in general.

Similar to violent offenders, Simon found that rapists displayed significant diversity in their offense records in comparison to child sexual abusers and had committed equivalent proportions of drug-related offenses, thefts and burglaries. Harris, Mazerolle and Knight suggest that rape can be explained by the general theory of crime. The majority of traditional rapist typologies have focused on the relationship to the victim, degree of aggression, motivation, sexual versus nonsexual nature of the assault and degree of control impulsive vs.

Like child sexual abusers, rapists are often classified by their relationship to the victim i. Seventy-three percent of rapists know their victims Bureau of Justice Statistics, Acquaintance rapists are characterized as coercive, less violent and less opportunistic than stranger rapists Bruinsma, Rapists have also been classified based upon motivational characteristics. Groth created a typology based upon the degree of aggression, the underlying motivation of the offender and the existence of other antisocial behaviors, which resulted in four types of rapists.

The power-reassurance or sexual-aim rapist is characterized by feelings of inadequacy and poor social skills and does not inflict injury upon his victims National Center for Women and Policing, The violence used by the power-reassurance rapist is only sufficient to achieve the compliance of the victim or to complete the sexual act. Such an individual may perceive that the victim has shown a sexual interest in him, or that by the use of force the victim will grow to like him Craissati, The power-assertive or antisocial rapist is impulsive, uses aggressive methods of control and abuses substances.

His sexual assaults are often unplanned and he is unlikely to use a weapon Groth, The third type of rapist is the anger-retaliation or aggressive-aim rapist, who is motivated by power and aggression.

This individual sexually assaults for retaliatory reasons and often degrades or humiliates the victim. The fourth type is the sadistic rapist, who reenacts sexual fantasies involving torture or pain.

Sexual sadism is defined as the repeated practice of cruel sexual behavior that is combined with fantasy and characterized by a desire to control the victim MacCullock et al. This type is characterized by extensive planning and may often result in sexual murder Groth, Characterized by Groth's anger-retaliation rapist, Ramirez, Jeglic and Calkins examined the relationship between pervasive anger and the use of physical and verbal aggression including use of a weapon during a sexual offense.

Additionally, the study compared child sexual abusers and rapists with respect to levels of expressive anger and use of violence during the commission of the crime. Records of offenders were reviewed and coded to assess anger using a pervasive anger measure and violence used during the sexual offense. Regardless of victim type, sexual offenders who used violence physical and verbal, but not a weapon during the sexual offense were evaluated as angrier than those who did not use violence.

Taken together, findings provide support for Groth's conceptualization of the third type of rapist. Although inherently useful for research purposes, these traditional rapist typologies demonstrate little clinical utility because they exclude the irrational cognitions i.

Differences between male and female sexual offenders are identified in the literature. Female sexual offenders report different offense-supportive cognitions than males. For example, Cortoni and Hanson found a female sexual recidivism rate of 1 percent over a five-year average follow-up period with a sample of females. In a sample of female sexual offenders, Vandiver found that 46 percent offended with another person and the majority of these co-perpetrators were male 71 percent , 62 percent offended with one individual and 38 percent offended within a group.

Gillespie and colleagues found a greater prevalence of sexual dissatisfaction, substance abuse, depression, denial and involvement with known offenders among co-offending females. Prior to the offense, female offenders who sexually abuse alone exhibited a greater need for power or dominance, need for intimacy, negative mood state, extensive offense planning and abusive fantasies. Females who co-offend with a male i. These individuals are further differentiated based on the use of coercion by the accomplice.

These females have been shown to report a history of childhood sexual and physical abuse. Female offenders who sexually abuse alone i. These females exhibit dependency needs and often abuse substances. They are less likely to report severe child maltreatment; instead, their sexual abuse behaviors often result from a dysfunctional adult relationship and attachment deficits.

These female offenders report extensive physical and sexual abuse by caregivers. Researchers contend that they are often motivated by power i. Female offenders who engage in the exploitation or forced prostitution of other females have been reported to be motivated by financial gain and have higher number of arrests for nonsexual crimes.

Cortoni, Sandler and Freeman found females convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor tend to be younger at age of first conviction, have a greater history of incarceration and exhibit general criminality e. Female offenders who themselves sexually assault other female adults often offend within an intimate relationship as a form of domestic violence i.

They are motivated to assault out of anger, retaliation and jealousy. To reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexual violence in the future, there remains a need for etiological research to provide an empirical basis for treatment interventions.

Although these female typologies are useful to describe offense characteristics, they like the male typologies do not provide a theoretical framework for the etiology of sexual offending Logan, To reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexual violence in the future, there remains a need for etiological research to provide an empirical basis for treatment interventions for female offenders.

Formal failure was defined by reconviction, violation and return to prison. In a recent meta-analysis, Seto, Hanson and Babchishin reported that in a sample of 2, online offenders, 4. Likewise, of online offenders, 4. Several typologies have been created to categorize internet offenders. In their review of internet offenders, Beech and colleagues summarized these typologies into four groups.

The second group is composed of individuals who access or trade pornography to fuel their sexual interest in children Beech et al. The fourth group consists of individuals who download pornographic images for nonsexual reasons e. To date, studies have not examined the personality characteristics, criminogenic needs or risk factors of these offenders. A recent qualitative typology was proposed by Tener, Wolak and Finkelhhor , identifying four types of internet offenders who use online communications to commit sex crimes against minors.

The typology was derived from 75 case narratives described by law enforcement of offenders who met victims online or knew them and used the internet for communication. Data analysis identified four dimensions of offense characteristics: patterns of online communication, online identities, nature of the relationship and levels of expertise number of victims, child pornography involvement, sophistication of strategies and awareness of criminality Tener et al.

The dimensions were summarized into four internet offender types on a continuum of level of crime expertise high to low. The highest level of crime expertise, the experts , consists of sophisticated offenders who systematically procure victims. The experts utilize extensive planning, manipulation and techniques to procure victims.

Female sexual abusers