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Nsikan Akpan Nsikan Akpan. In its stead, the report finds that human DNA cannot predict who is gay or heterosexual. Sexuality cannot be pinned down by biology, psychology or life experiences, this study and others show, because human sexual attraction is decided by all these factors. The study shows that genes play a small and limited role in determining sexuality. That pattern is similar to other heritable but complex characteristics like height or a proclivity toward trying new things.

Lesbian thumbnail pictures psychology of

Lesbian thumbnail pictures psychology of

This study examined the relations among family structure e. Those early studies stumbled upon a Arlington naked pattern: Sexuality can run in families and thus must have a genetic component. Also, the NLLFS adolescents were asked whether they had experienced stigmatization, thumbnai if so, to describe these experiences e. Gender development of the children was not identifiably different in the two groups. A positive association was found between feminine gender role Lesbian thumbnail pictures psychology of and curiosity, and a negative correlation between this trait and internalizing problem behavior; these associations were independent of the gender of the adolescents and the presence of male role models. In compiling this report it became clear to the contributing committees and ghumbnail that the depth and breadth of these challenges are largely unknown to the general public and perhaps even to many pediatricians. Sarantakos, S. Visit Cz hentai gamrs Website Fedewa, A. Twenty-five children of lesbian mothers and a control group of 21 children of heterosexual single mothers were first seen at Lesbian thumbnail pictures psychology of 9.

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Overview: We identified 79 scholarly studies that met our criteria for adding to knowledge about the well-being of children with gay or lesbian parents. Of those studies, 75 concluded that children of gay or lesbian parents fare no worse than other children. While many of the sample sizes were small, and some studies lacked a control group, researchers regard such studies as providing the best available knowledge about child adjustment, and do not view large, representative samples as essential.

Since all four took their samples from children who endured family break-ups, a cohort known to face added risks, these studies have been criticized by many scholars as unreliable assessments of the well-being of LGB-headed households. Taken together, this research forms an overwhelming scholarly consensus, based on over three decades of peer-reviewed research, that having a gay or lesbian parent does not harm children.

The result was a family that endured added stress and often disruption or family breakup. Yet within the field, convenience sampling is not considered a methodological flaw, but simply a limitation to generalizability. A study by Stanford researcher Michael Rosenfeld used census data to examine the school advancement of 3, children with same-sex parents, finding no significant differences between households headed by same-sex and opposite-sex parents when controlling for family background.

Another study drew on nationally representative, longitudinal data using a sampling pool of over 20, children, of which lived in a same-sex parent household. Controlling for family disruptions, those children showed no significant differences from their peers in school outcomes. Click here for a printer-friendly PDF of this overview report.

Visit Source Website Adams, J. Scientific consensus, the law, and same sex parenting outcomes. Social Science Research, 53, While the US Supreme Court was considering two related cases involving the constitutionality of same-sex marriage, one major question informing that decision was whether scientific research had achieved consensus regarding how children of same-sex couples fare.

Determining the extent of consensus has become a key aspect of how social science evidence and testimony is accepted by the courts. Here, we show how a method of analyzing temporal patterns in citation networks can be used to assess the state of social scientific literature as a means to inform just such a question.

Patterns of clustering within these citation networks reveal whether and when consensus arises within a scientific field. Visit Source Website Allen, M. Comparing the impact of homosexual and heterosexual parents on children: meta-analysis of existing research. Journal of Homosexuality, 32 2 , Should the sexual orientation of the parent play a part in the determination of custody or visitation in order to protect the child?

This meta-analysis summa- rizes the available quantitative literature comparing the impact of heterosexual and homosexual parents, using a variety of measures, on the child ren. The analyses examine parenting practices, the emotional well-being of the child, and the sexual orientation of the child.

In other words, the data fail to support the continuation of a bias against homosexual parents by any court. Visit Source Website Anderssen, N. Outcomes for children with lesbian or gay parents. A review of studies from to Scandinavian Journal of Psychology , 43 4 , Twenty reported on offspring of lesbian mothers, and three on offspring of gay fathers.

The studies encompassed a total of offspring age range 1. Seven types of outcomes were found to be typical: emotional functioning, sexual preference, stigmatization, gender role behavior, behavioral adjustment, gender identity, and cognitive functioning. Children raised by lesbian mothers or gay fathers did not systematically differ from other children on any of the outcomes. The studies indicate that children raised by lesbian women do not experience adverse outcomes compared with other children.

Visit Source Website Baiocco, R. Lesbian mother families and gay father families in Italy: family functioning, dyadic satisfaction, and child well-being. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 12 3 , The literature underlines that lesbian mother and gay father families are similar to those with heterosexual parents, regarding family functioning, dyadic satisfaction, and child development.

This paper compares 40 same-sex families and 40 heterosexual parents in the Italian context. In Italy, it is impossible for same-sex couples or single lesbians and gay men to adopt a child, become married, or enter civil partnerships.

The participants were administered self-reports, in order to investigate the dyadic relationships, family functioning, and emotional and social adjustment of their children. Lesbian and gay parents reported higher levels of dyadic adjustment, flexibility, and communication in their family than heterosexual parents. Data from the present study demonstrated that children raised by lesbian and gay parents showed a similar level of emotion regulation and psychological well-being than children raised by heterosexual parents.

In Italy, negative attitudes towards same-sex families persist, and educational programs should be developed to deconstruct stereotypes regarding gay and lesbian parent families.

Visit Source Website Bailey, J. Sexual orientation of adult sons of gay fathers. Developmental Psychology, 31 1 , The sexual development of children of gay and lesbian parents is interesting for both scientific and social reasons. The present study is the largest to date to focus on the sexual orientation of adult sons of gay men. From advertisements in gay publications, 55 gay or bisexual men were recruited who reported on 82 sons at least 17 yrs of age.

Visit Source Website Biblarz, T. How does the gender of parents matter? Journal of Marriage and Family, 72 1 , Claims that children need both a mother and father presume that women and men parent differently in ways crucial to development but generally rely on studies that conflate gender with other family structure variables.

We analyze findings from studies with designs that mitigate these problems by comparing two-parent families with same or different sex coparents and single-mother and single-father families. Strengths typically associated with married mother-father families appear to the same extent in families with 2 mothers and potentially in those with 2 fathers.

Average differences favor women over men, but parenting skills are not dichotomous or exclusive. Visit Source Website Bos, H. Planned gay father families in kinship arrangements. The gay fathers in this study all became parents while in same-sex relationships. They donated sperm to lesbian couples and then shared the child-rearing with them in kinship arrangements. It was also examined whether aspects that are related specifically to gay fathers i.

Data were collected by means of questionnaires filled in by the fathers. However, gay fathers felt less competent in their child-rearing role than heterosexual fathers. We assessed whether associations among family relationships, parenting stress, and child outcomes were different in the 2 household types.

Methods: Parental and child characteristics were matched for 95 female same-sex parent and 95 different-sex parent households with children 6 to 17 years old. One parent per household was interviewed by telephone. Multivariate analyses of variance and multiple linear regressions were conducted.

No significant interactions between household type and family relationships or household type and parenting stress were found for any child outcomes. Future studies may reveal the sources of this parenting stress. Data were obtained in the Netherlands from children in 63 lesbian families and 68 heterosexual families. All children were between 8 and 12 years old.

No differences were found on psychosocial adjustment. Gender typicality, gender contentedness and anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement were significant predictors of psychosocial adjustment in both family types. Lesbian families and family functioning: an overview.

Patient Education and Counseling, 59 3 , In the research on lesbian families two phases were identified. To begin with, systematic studies on lesbian families focused on lesbian families with children who were born in a previous heterosexual relationship.

This paper presents and discusses major finding of the reviewed articles. However, it is the stigma of lesbianism that makes the family situation of lesbian families different. Child adjustment and parenting in planned lesbian-parent families.

American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77 1 , One hundred planned lesbian-parent families i. Questionnaires, observations, and a diary of activities were used to collect the data. Child adjustment is not associated with family type lesbian-parent families vs. Adolescents in lesbian families: DSM-oriented scale scores and stigmatization. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study. In comparison with the scores of an age-matched normative sample, no significant differences in scores were found.

Within the NLLFS sample, adolescents who reported stigmatization scored higher on affective, anxiety, and conduct problems. Although overall psychological functioning of the NLLFS adolescents fell within the healthy range, stigmatization had a negative impact on the well-being of some adolescents.

Lesbian and heterosexual two-parent families: adolescent-parent relationship quality and adolescent well-being. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23 2 , The adolescents average age 16 years were matched on demographic characteristics age, gender, educational level, country of birth, parental birth country with a sample from a large school-based survey, and data were collected by means of adolescent self-reports.

Analyses indicated that adolescents in both family types had positive relationships with their parents, which were favorably associated with psychological well-being. On the assessments of psychological adjustment and substance use, family type was significantly associated only with self-esteem and conduct problems: Adolescents with lesbian mothers had higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of conduct problems than their counterparts in heterosexual-parent families.

Overall, the findings indicate that adolescents from intact two-mother lesbian families are comparable to those in a matched comparison group with intact mother—father families. The few differences found on psychological well-being favored the adolescents in lesbian two-mother families. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 12 4 , The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families.

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Nsikan Akpan Nsikan Akpan. In its stead, the report finds that human DNA cannot predict who is gay or heterosexual. Sexuality cannot be pinned down by biology, psychology or life experiences, this study and others show, because human sexual attraction is decided by all these factors. The study shows that genes play a small and limited role in determining sexuality. That pattern is similar to other heritable but complex characteristics like height or a proclivity toward trying new things.

Of course, ethical concerns arise with any attempt to use biology to explain complex human behavior like sexuality. People like Michael Bailey, a psychologist at Northwestern University who conducted much of the early research into the heritability of sexuality, warned against taking this new genetics study — or any research on sexual behavior — out of context.

We knew that before this study. The study set out to investigate a year-old genetics debate in sexuality by combing through two huge collections of DNA profiles: the UK Biobank and 23andMe.

It contains the DNA sequences of , middle-aged people, who were 40 to 69 years old when they were recruited between and This study pulled the information for , people across the UK Biobank and 23andMe who had taken a survey about various life behaviors, including whether they had engaged in a sexual experience with a person of the same sex at any point in their life.

Think of all of humanity as consisting of 7 billion copies of the same book. All humans contain the same words — or individual genes — that make up how we think and how our organs function.

But the words in our respective genetic books — or their code — look slightly different. Some of my letters might be red, while some of yours are colored blue.

This may sound counterintuitive, but those variations can also share similarities. The books that make up my family look similar to each other — in this example, they contain other shades of red. The technique can be used to suss out why certain people and their particular genetic variations correlate with health conditions like autism , physical traits like curly hair or colorblindness, behaviors like handedness or emotions like loneliness.

The strongest signals came from five random genes. Two of those genes correlated with same-sex sexuality in males, one of which is known to influence the sense of smell. One gene cropped up for females and two others showed solid patterns in both males and females. But their individual scores never passed this 1-percent mark — meaning they are all minor contributors to same-sex sexual behavior.

Humans have tried to understand human sexuality for centuries — and genetics researchers joined the fray in the early s after a series of studies on twins suggested homosexuality ran in families. These kinds of studies have continued through the years, going as far as pinpointing a gene on the X chromosome — Xq28 — as the culprit.

His comments speak to the larger narrative about using biology to define complex behaviors — like sexuality — when science is always evolving and takes time to find anything close to definitive. Those early studies stumbled upon a concrete pattern: Sexuality can run in families and thus must have a genetic component. But back then, the scientists had no way of comprehensively exploring this issue. Genome sequencing took decades to slowly mature into what it is today, and twins alone cannot represent the genetic complexity of our species.

Those projects — known as linkage studies — were designed to find single major genes that appeared to have a big effect on sexuality, said Dr. And even this new study has a big limitation, one that has been inherent to major genomic studies for the last two decades: GWAS studies are too white.

They did attempt to examine some elements of this continuum by conducting GWAS analysis on three smaller DNA databases wherein the participants had been surveyed using the Kinsey Scale. In other words, it tries to judge if a person leans gay, straight or bisexual. He did agree with Neale that the debate is now closed on whether any single gene is responsible for sexual orientation.

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World Agents for Change. Health Long-Term Care. For Teachers. About Feedback Funders Support Jobs. Close Menu. Email Address Subscribe. What do you think? Leave a respectful comment. Close Comment Window. By — Nsikan Akpan Nsikan Akpan. Leave a comment. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter. For instance, Bailey added, there is no evidence that things like conversion therapy work.

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Lesbian thumbnail pictures psychology of

Lesbian thumbnail pictures psychology of