People for gay marriages-10 Common Arguments Used by Opponents of Gay Marriage

In the debate over gay marriage, opponents have many arguments that profess their belief that it should not be legal. These include many moral and religious reasons that point to a threat to the sacred institution of marriage. This debate brings up many questions. In an attempt to understand the issue, let's examine common arguments against same-sex marriage and why they may not stand up in modern America. Is there even a point to same-sex couples getting married?

People for gay marriages

People for gay marriages

People for gay marriages

Israel Mexico 1. People for gay marriages contract of marriage is also a compact between two individuals, a promise to care for one another. Where does that leave people who are not quite either male or female - at least according to the definitions ordinarily employed? What are some of the reasons why you favor legal same-sex marriages? Main article: Same-sex marriage in Ecuador.

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This is why they are so determined to enact federal laws, and perhaps even constitutional amendmentsto prevent gay marriage from having the same status as heterosexual marriage, Peopke though it is legal. Extended content. That decision People for gay marriages met by actions at both the federal and state level to restrict marriage to male-female couples, notably the enactment at the federal level of the People for gay marriages of Marriage Act. Neither performed nor recognized in American Samoa or some tribal nations Degree of recognition unknown. Anthropologists have struggled to determine a definition of marriage that absorbs commonalities of the social construct across cultures around the world. By solidifying relationships, gay marriage will help ePople communities overall. Retrieved July 19, Retrieved December 12, Rather, it was established by God in Paradise for our first parents, Adam and Eve. Officials of one county in Texas are still unwilling to issue licenses Peopel same-sex Acid fatty hydrogenated, as of August In individual cases, same-sex couples have been given judicial approval to marry in all other states. Accessed October 22, Virginia inin which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down all state bans on inter-racial marriageissued Hardcore sex quizzes statement on the 40th anniversary People for gay marriages the ruling in which she expressed her support for same-sex marriage and described it as a civil right akin to inter-racial marriage, stating that "I believe all Americans, no matter their race, no matter their sex, no matter their sexual orientation, should have that same freedom to People for gay marriages.

On June 26, , the U.

  • Support for same-sex marriage has steadily grown over the past 15 years.
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  • Prior to their decision, same-sex marriage was already legal in 37 states and Washington DC, but was banned in the remaining

Prior to their decision, same-sex marriage was already legal in 37 states and Washington DC, but was banned in the remaining Proponents of legal gay marriage contend that gay marriage bans are discriminatory and unconstitutional, and that same-sex couples should have access to all the benefits enjoyed by different-sex couples.

Opponents contend that marriage has traditionally been defined as being between one man and one woman, and that marriage is primarily for procreation. Did You Know? On May 17, , the first legal gay marriage in the United States was performed in Cambridge, MA between Tanya McCloskey, a massage therapist, and Marcia Kadish, an employment manager at an engineering firm. The world's first legal gay marriage ceremony took place in the Netherlands on Apr. The four couples, one female and three male, were married in a televised ceremony officiated by the mayor of Amsterdam.

The Congressional Budget Office estimated on Dec. An Oct. Proper citation depends on your preferred or required style manual. Here are the proper bibliographic citations for this page according to four style manuals in alphabetical order :.

Skip to content. Gay Marriage. Should Gay Marriage Be Legal? On July 25, Miami-Dade County Circuit Court Judge Sarah Zabel ruled Florida's gay marriage ban unconstitutional and stated that the ban "serves only to hurt, to discriminate, to deprive same-sex couples and their families of equal dignity, to label and treat them as second-class citizens, and to deem them unworthy of participation in one of the fundamental institutions of our society.

We have joined together to recognize equality for racial minorities, women, people with disabilities, immigrants As explained by David S. Nancy, a woman, can marry Tom, but Bill, a man, cannot Nancy can do something marry Tom that Bill cannot, simply because Nancy is a woman and Bill is a man.

Pro 2 Same-sex couples should have access to the same benefits enjoyed by heterosexual married couples. There are 1, benefits, rights and protections available to married couples in federal law alone, according to a General Accounting Office assessment made in Harvard University historian Nancy F. Cott stated that until two centuries ago, "monogamous households were a tiny, tiny portion" of the world's population, and were found only in "Western Europe and little settlements in North America.

LaFleur that the "freedom of personal choice in matters of marriage and family life is one of the liberties protected by the Due Process Clause. Pro 5 Marriage is an internationally recognized human right for all people. Since the US Supreme Court has declared 14 times that marriage is a fundamental right for all, according to the American Foundation for Equal Rights.

They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. Non-discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation has therefore become an internationally recognized principle. Pro 6 Same-sex marriage is a civil right.

Virginia that marriage is "one of the basic civil rights of man. Pro 7 Marriage is not only for procreation, otherwise infertile couples or couples not wishing to have children would be prevented from marrying. Ability or desire to create offspring has never been a qualification for marriage. Pro 8 Gay marriages can bring financial gain to federal, state, and local governments and can help boost the economy.

Government revenue from marriage comes from marriage licenses, higher income taxes in some circumstances the so-called "marriage penalty" , and decreases in costs for state benefit programs.

Pro 9 Gay couples make good parents. A June peer-reviewed University of Melbourne study showed that children raised by same-sex parents score about six percent higher than the general population on measures of general health and family cohesion.

Pro 10 Gay marriage bans cause humiliation and uncertainty for children being raised by same-sex couples. In ruling Texas' gay marriage ban unconstitutional, San Antonio-based federal judge Orlando Garcia stated that the ban "causes needless stigmatization and humiliation for children being raised by the loving same-sex couples being targeted.

Pro 11 Marriage provides both physical and psychological health benefits, and banning gay marriage increases rates of psychological disorders.

A study published on Apr. Rather, anthropological research supports the conclusion that a vast array of family types, including families built upon same-sex partnerships, can contribute to stable and humane societies. Pro 13 Gay marriage legalization is correlated with lower divorce rates, while gay marriage bans are correlated with higher divorce rates. Massachusetts, which became the first US state to legalize gay marriage in , had the lowest divorce rate in the country in Alaska, which altered its constitution to prohibit gay marriage in , saw a The seven states with the highest divorce rates between and all had constitutional prohibitions to gay marriage.

Pro 14 Legal marriage is a secular institution that should not be limited by religious objections to same-sex marriage. Religious institutions can decline to marry gay and lesbian couples if they wish, but they should not dictate marriage laws for society at large. As explained by People for the American Way, "As a legal matter, marriage is a civil institution Marriage is also a religious institution, defined differently by different faiths and congregations.

In America, the distinction can get blurry because states permit clergy to carry out both religious and civil marriage in a single ceremony.

Religious Right leaders have exploited that confusion by claiming that granting same-sex couples equal access to civil marriage would somehow also redefine the religious institution of marriage Schwarzenegger that "[c]ivil law has always been supreme in defining and regulating marriage. Pro 15 Many religious leaders and churches support gay marriage and say it is consistent with scripture. And they [religious people] see that love in our families, and I think people can't help but be supportive.

The United Church of Christ General Synod voted in July to affirm "equal marriage rights for couples regardless of gender. Con 1 The institution of marriage has traditionally been defined as being between a man and a woman. Sutton wrote that "marriage has long been a social institution defined by relationships between men and women. So long defined, the tradition is measured in millennia, not centuries or decades.

So widely shared, the tradition until recently had been adopted by all governments and major religions of the world. Nelson, the Supreme Court of Minnesota found that "the institution of marriage as a union of man and woman, uniquely involving the procreation and rearing of children within a family, is as old as the book of Genesis. Harvey, MA, STL, late Catholic priest, wrote in July that "Throughout the history of the human race the institution of marriage has been understood as the complete spiritual and bodily communion of one man and one woman.

Con 2 Marriage is for procreation and should not be extended to same-sex couples because they cannot produce children together. Allowing gay marriage would only further shift the purpose of marriage from producing and raising children to adult gratification.

Same-sex couples can never provide a child with both her biological mother and her biological father. Seemingly infertile heterosexual couples sometimes produce children, and medical advances may allow others to procreate in the future. Heterosexual couples who do not wish to have children are still biologically capable of having them, and may change their minds.

Con 3 Children need both a mother and a father. Girls who are raised apart from their fathers are reportedly at higher risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy. I don't want to see children being engineered for same-sex couples where there is either a mom missing or a dad missing.

Dobson, Founder and Chairman of Focus on the Family, predicted in that legalizing same-sex marriage will enable "group marriage," "marriage between daddies and little girls," and "marriage between a man and his donkey.

Con 5 Allowing gay couples to wed could further weaken the institution of marriage. Anderson, William E. Redefining marriage to include same-sex relationships is the culmination of this revisionism, and it would leave emotional intensity as the only thing that sets marriage apart from other bonds. Con 6 Homosexuality is immoral and unnatural. Matt Barber, Associate Dean for Online Programs at Liberty University School of Law, stated that "Every individual engaged in the homosexual lifestyle, who has adopted a homosexual identity, they know, intuitively, that what they're doing is immoral, unnatural, and self-destructive, yet they thirst for that affirmation.

Marriage is holy, while homosexual acts go against the natural moral law. Con 7 Gay marriage is contrary to the word of God and is incompatible with the beliefs, sacred texts, and traditions of many religious groups. The Bible, in Leviticus , states: "Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination," thus condemning homosexual relationships.

No ideology can erase from the human spirit the certainty that marriage exists solely between a man and a woman…" [ 54 ] Pope Benedict stated in Jan. Maryland ended health insurance benefits for new domestic partnerships after same-sex marriage became legal in the state in Con 9 Gay marriage will accelerate the assimilation of gays into mainstream heterosexual culture to the detriment of the homosexual community.

The gay community has created its own vibrant culture. By reducing the differences in opportunities and experiences between gay and heterosexual people, this unique culture may cease to exist.

Lesbian activist M. Lee Badgett, PhD, Director of the Center for Public Policy and Administration at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, stated that for many gay activists "marriage means adopting heterosexual forms of family and giving up distinctively gay family forms and perhaps even gay and lesbian culture.

Con 10 Marriage is an outmoded, oppressive institution that should be weakened, not expanded. LGBT lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender activist collective Against Equality states that "Gay marriage apes hetero privilege The family is the microcosm of oppression. Con 11 People should not have their tax dollars used to support something they believe is wrong.

Peter S. Sprigg, MDiv, Senior Fellow for Policy Studies at the Family Research Council, said that if gay marriage were legalized, "[t]axpayers, consumers, and businesses would be forced to subsidize homosexual relationships One of the key arguments often heard in support of homosexual civil marriage revolves around all the government 'benefits' that homosexuals claim they are denied.

Many of these 'benefits' involve one thing—taxpayer money that homosexuals are eager to get their hands on. On Dec. Con 12 Marriage is a privilege, not a right. The US Constitution contains no explicit right to marry. The Illinois Family Institute states that if gay marriage is legalized, "Children will be taught that homosexuality is morally equivalent to heterosexuality They will be taught that opposition to both was motivated by ignorance and hatred.

To be brainwashed to think that homosexuality is the moral equivalent of heterosexuality.

Same-sex marriage banned by secular constitution. Retrieved April 3, The law took effect on 1 July It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts. The "red equal sign" project started by the Human Rights Campaign was an electronic campaign primarily based on Facebook that encouraged users to change their profile images to a red equal sign to express support for same-sex marriage.

People for gay marriages

People for gay marriages

People for gay marriages

People for gay marriages

People for gay marriages

People for gay marriages. Public opinion on same-sex marriage

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The mystery photos of a gay wedding - BBC News

Same-sex marriage also known as gay marriage is the marriage of two people of the same sex or gender , entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.

There are records of same-sex marriage dating back to the first century though there is no legal provision in Roman Law, and it was banned in the Roman Empire in the fourth. In the modern era, same-sex marriage started being legalized at the beginning of the 21st century.

Today, it is available in 28 countries. Same-sex marriage is also due to become legal in Costa Rica. A ministerial decision decreed that Armenia shall as well, though as of February there had been no actual cases. The introduction of same-sex marriage also called marriage equality has varied by jurisdiction, and came about through legislative change to marriage law , court rulings based on constitutional guarantees of equality, recognition that it is allowed by existing marriage law, [3] or by direct popular vote via referendums and initiatives.

The recognition of same-sex marriage is considered to be a human right and a civil right as well as a political, social, and religious issue. Polls consistently show continually rising support for the recognition of same-sex marriage in all developed democracies and in some developing democracies.

Scientific studies show that the financial, psychological, and physical well-being of gay people are enhanced by marriage, and that the children of same-sex parents benefit from being raised by married same-sex couples within a marital union that is recognized by law and supported by societal institutions. Many studies have shown that children of same-sex couples fare just as well as the children of opposite-sex couples; some studies have shown benefits to being raised by same-sex couples.

A study of nationwide data from across the United States from January to December revealed that the establishment of same-sex marriage is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children, with the effect being concentrated among children of a minority sexual orientation, resulting in about , fewer children attempting suicide each year in the United States.

Some proponents of legal recognition of same-sex marriage, such as Freedom to Marry and Canadians for Equal Marriage , use the terms marriage equality and equal marriage to indicate that they seek the recognition of same-sex marriage on equal ground with opposite-sex marriage as opposed to special rights.

The AP Stylebook recommends the usage of the phrase marriage for gays and lesbians or the term gay marriage in space-limited headlines. The Associated Press warns that the construct gay marriage can imply that the marriages of same-sex couples are somehow different from the marriages of opposite-sex couples.

Anthropologists have struggled to determine a definition of marriage that absorbs commonalities of the social construct across cultures around the world.

With several countries revising their marriage laws to recognize same-sex couples in the 21st century, all major English dictionaries have revised their definition of the word marriage to either drop gender specifications or supplement them with secondary definitions to include gender-neutral language or explicit recognition of same-sex unions.

Opponents of same-sex marriage who want marriage to be restricted to pairings of a man and a woman, such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , the Catholic Church , and the Southern Baptist Convention , use the term traditional marriage to mean opposite-sex marriage.

The Australian Psychological Society supports same-sex marriage [27] and the British Psychological Society has acknowledged that there is no empirical basis for beliefs used to argue for the exclusion of same-sex attracted individuals from marriage.

Prominent figures in the civil rights movement have expressed their support for same-sex marriage. Virginia in , in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down all state bans on inter-racial marriage , issued a statement on the 40th anniversary of the ruling in which she expressed her support for same-sex marriage and described it as a civil right akin to inter-racial marriage, stating that "I believe all Americans, no matter their race, no matter their sex, no matter their sexual orientation, should have that same freedom to marry".

Hodges in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down all state bans on same-sex marriage, stating that "races don't fall in love, genders don't fall in love—people fall in love". The NAACP , the leading African-American civil rights organization, has pledged its support for gay rights and same-sex marriage, stating that they "support marriage equality consistent with equal protection under the law provided under the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution", and has declared that same-sex marriage is a civil right.

The Human Rights Campaign , the largest LGBT rights organization in the United States, states that "many same-sex couples want the right to legally marry because they are in love—many, in fact, have spent the last 10, 20 or 50 years with that person—and they want to honor their relationship in the greatest way our society has to offer, by making a public commitment to stand together in good times and bad, through all the joys and challenges family life brings.

Journalist Gail Mathabane likens prohibitions on same-sex marriage to past prohibitions on interracial marriage in the United States. Opposition to same-sex marriage is based on claims such as that homosexuality is unnatural and abnormal, that the recognition of same-sex unions will promote homosexuality in society, and that children are better off when raised by opposite-sex couples. Some of the opponents of same-sex marriage are religious groups such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , the Catholic Church , and the Southern Baptist Convention , all of which desire for marriage to remain restricted to opposite-sex couples.

The American Anthropological Association stated on 26 February Rather, anthropological research supports the conclusion that a vast array of family types, including families built upon same-sex partnerships, can contribute to stable and humane societies.

The establishment of same-sex marriage is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children, with the effect being concentrated among children of a minority sexual orientation. Once same-sex marriage was established in a particular state, the reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children in that state became permanent.

No reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children occurred in a particular state until that state recognized same-sex marriage. For example, the Canadian Psychological Association stated in that "parents' financial, psychological and physical well-being is enhanced by marriage and that children benefit from being raised by two parents within a legally-recognized union.

The American Academy of Pediatrics concluded in , in an analysis published in the journal Pediatrics :. There is ample evidence to show that children raised by same-gender parents fare as well as those raised by heterosexual parents. Conscientious and nurturing adults, whether they are men or women, heterosexual or homosexual, can be excellent parents. The rights, benefits, and protections of civil marriage can further strengthen these families.

According to the author, the study highlighted the importance of abolishing institutional forms of discrimination, including those leading to disparities in the mental health and well-being of LGB individuals. Author and journalist Jonathan Rauch has argued that marriage is good for all men, whether homosexual or heterosexual, because engaging in its social roles reduces men's aggression and promiscuity.

Same-sex parents and carers and their children are likely to benefit in numerous ways from legal recognition of their families, and providing such recognition through marriage will bestow greater benefit than civil unions or domestic partnerships. The American Psychological Association stated in "Denial of access to marriage to same-sex couples may especially harm people who also experience discrimination based on age, race, ethnicity, disability, gender and gender identity, religion, socioeconomic status and so on.

In , a pair of economists at Emory University tied the passage of state bans on same-sex marriage in the United States to an increase in the rates of HIV infection. Numerous polls and studies on the issue have been conducted, including those that were completed throughout the first decade of the 21st century. A consistent trend of increasing support for same-sex marriage has been revealed across the world, often driven in large part by a significant generational gap in support.

Polling that was conducted in developed democracies in the first decade of the 21st century shows a majority of people in support of same-sex marriage. Support for legal same-sex marriage has increased across every age group, political ideology, religion, gender, race and region of various developed countries in the world. Various detailed polls and studies on same-sex marriage that were conducted in several countries show that support for same-sex marriage significantly increases with higher levels of education and is also significantly stronger among younger generations, with a clear trend of continually increasing support.

A reference to same-sex marriage appears in the Sifra , which was written in the 3rd century CE. The Book of Leviticus prohibited homosexual relations, and the Hebrews were warned not to "follow the acts of the land of Egypt or the acts of the land of Canaan" Lev. The Sifra clarifies what these ambiguous "acts" were, and that they included same-sex marriage: "A man would marry a man and a woman a woman, a man would marry a woman and her daughter, and a woman would be married to two men.

What is arguably the first historical mention of the performance of same-sex marriages occurred during the early Roman Empire according to controversial [] historian John Boswell. Child emperor Elagabalus referred to his chariot driver, a blond slave from Caria named Hierocles , as his husband. The first Roman emperor to have married a man was Nero , who is reported to have married two other males on different occasions.

The first was with one of Nero's own freedmen , Pythagoras , with whom Nero took the role of the bride. The marriage was celebrated in both Greece and Rome in extravagant public ceremonies. It should be noted, however, that conubium existed only between a civis Romanus and a civis Romana that is, between a male Roman citizen and a female Roman citizen , so that a marriage between two Roman males or with a slave would have no legal standing in Roman law apart, presumably, from the arbitrary will of the emperor in the two aforementioned cases.

The idea implicit in the word is that a man took a woman in marriage, in matrimonium ducere , so that he might have children by her. Historians variously trace the beginning of the modern movement in support of same-sex marriage to anywhere from around the s to the s. In Mexico , same-sex marriage is performed in several states and recognized in all thirty-one states.

In August , the Supreme Court of Justice of Costa Rica ruled that the right of same-sex couples to marry is guaranteed by the American Convention on Human Rights , in line with a January ruling by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights , and that the Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica has a grace period of eighteen months to amend the marriage law to align with the Convention after which same-sex marriage will automatically become established by law in Costa Rica.

Note: Countries and territories in which same-sex marriage laws have been repealed are not included on the table. British Judge Sir Nicolas Bratza , then head of the European Court of Human Rights, delivered a speech in that signaled the court was ready to declare same-sex marriage a "human right", as soon as enough countries fell into line.

Article 12 of the European Convention on Human Rights states that: "Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right", [] not limiting marriage to those in a heterosexual relationship. However, the ECHR stated in Schalk and Kopf v Austria that this provision was intended to limit marriage to heterosexual relationships, as it used the term "men and women" instead of "everyone".

On 12 March , the European Parliament passed a non-binding resolution encouraging EU institutions and member states to "[reflect] on the recognition of same-sex marriage or same-sex civil union as a political, social and human and civil rights issue". On 5 June , the European Court of Justice ruled, in a case from Romania , that, under the specific conditions of the couple in question, married same-sex couples have the same residency rights as other married couples in an EU country, even if that country does not permit or recognize same-sex marriage.

After a motion lodged by Costa Rica, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights issued a landmark advisory ruling in favour of same-sex marriage on 9 January , which is expected to facilitate legalisation in several countries in the Americas. The Court said that governments "must recognise and guarantee all the rights that are derived from a family bond between people of the same sex".

They also said that it was inadmissible and discriminatory for a separate legal provision to be established such as civil unions instead of same-sex marriage. The Court demanded that governments "guarantee access to all existing forms of domestic legal systems, including the right to marriage, in order to ensure the protection of all the rights of families formed by same-sex couples without discrimination".

The Court issued its ruling in response to a motion brought by Costa Rica in The Costa Rican Government asked the Court to give its opinion on whether it had an obligation to extend property rights to same-sex couples, and the Court ruled that it did.

The Costa Rican Government also wanted to know whether it should allow transgender people to change their name and gender on their identity documents. Again, the Court ruled that it must. On 29 June , two family judges in Cuenca, Ecuador ruled that the Civil Registry must issue same-sex marriage licenses on request, stating that the decision of the IACHR trumped the Ecuadorian Constitution 's definition of marriage. The Registry appealed, but the Constitutional Court ruled in favor of same-sex marriage on 12 June On 8 August , the Costa Rican Supreme Court declared Costa Rica's same-sex marriage ban unconstitutional, and gave the Legislative Assembly 18 months to reform the law accordingly, otherwise the ban would be abolished automatically.

Besides Ecuador and Costa Rica, lawsuits regarding same-sex marriage have been filed in Honduras, [] Panama, [] Paraguay to recognize marriages performed abroad , [] and Peru, [] all of which are under the jurisdiction of the IACHR. Same-sex marriage is also due to become legally performed and recognized in Costa Rica [f]. Legal cases have been filed in a number of other countries. On 15 July , the Argentine Senate approved a bill extending marriage rights to same-sex couples.

Australia became the second nation in Oceania to legalise same-sex marriage when the Australian Parliament passed a bill on 7 December Since 1 January , same-sex couples have been allowed to enter registered partnerships Eingetragene Partnerschaft. On 20 November , the Greens introduced a bill in the Austrian Parliament that would legalise same-sex marriage.

In December , the Vienna Administrative Court dismissed a case challenging the same-sex marriage ban. The plaintiffs appealed to the Constitutional Court. Thus, same-sex couples have been allowed to marry since 1 January The Court also decided that civil unions will be open for both same-sex and different-sex couples from that date onwards.

Belgium became the second country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriages when a bill passed by the Belgian Federal Parliament took effect on 1 June A statute legalized adoption by same-sex spouses. Between mid and May , same-sex couples had their cohabitation issues converted into marriages in several Brazil states with the approval of a state judge.

All legal Brazilian marriages were always recognized all over Brazil. In November , the Court of Bahia equalized marriage in the state of Bahia. In Rio de Janeiro, the State Court facilitated its realization by district judges in agreement with the equalization instead of ordering notaries to accept same-sex marriages in demand as all others.

On 14 May , the Justice's National Council of Brazil issued a ruling requiring all civil registers of the country to perform same-sex marriages by a 14—1 vote, thus legalizing same-sex marriage in the entire country. Legal recognition of same-sex marriage in Canada followed a series of constitutional challenges based on the equality provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In the first such case, Halpern v.

Canada Attorney General , same-sex marriage ceremonies performed in Ontario on 14 January were subsequently validated when the common law , mixed-sex definition of marriage was held to be unconstitutional.

Similar rulings had legalized same-sex marriage in eight provinces and one territory when the Civil Marriage Act defined marriage throughout Canada as "the lawful union of two persons to the exclusion of all others".

People for gay marriages