Sperm morphology, in the context of a semen analysis, refers to the size and shape of the sperm in a given semen sample. Otherwise, you could have fertility problems because of abnormal sperm morphology. A normal sperm has an oval head about micrometers long and 2. You may see a different number for normal on a semen analysis depending on what system is being used. This matters because having an abnormal shape might make it difficult for them to penetrate an egg.
Products and services. When sulfasalazine treatment is stopped, the semen parameters can return to normal values, and the megalo norphology can disappear. In the typical approach, Gejala hiv positif would describe different obvious abnormalities and Normal sperm morphology these abnormalities as criteria to evaluate sperm morphology. Diagnosis and Treatment. Sperm count is a key factor in fertility. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Normal sperm morphology linked below. Research has not shown a clear relationship between abnormal sperm shape and tobacco, alcohol, or caffeine use, though some studies suggest that smoking can impair fertility.
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The reduced value for morphologically normal spermatozoa over the years may be due to several factors.
- How does this affect my fertility?
- It basically looks at the shape and appearance of the sperm head, midsection, and tail.
- After a median follow-up time of 2.
How does this affect my fertility? What can I do about it? Morphology refers to the shape of your sperm, or what it looks like under a microscope. Specifically, it looks at the shape of the sperm head and the size of the sperm.
Sperm morphology ranges indicate what percent of sperm are considered normal in size and shape. The ranges will differ from lab to lab, depending on the criteria used to assess the sperm. Stricter criteria will result in a lower normal range. Your doctor will discuss your range with you and help you determine what effect it has on your fertility.
According to Dr. Ten to 14 percent is still good fertility potential, 5 to 10 percent is decreased fertility, and less than 5 percent is poor fertility potential. Sperm morphology affects fertility because sperm have to be a certain shape to be able to penetrate an egg.
But morphology is only one of many factors when it comes to fertility. Your doctor will also look at the number of overall sperm and how easily they move. If your doctor tells you that you have small-headed sperm morphology, in vitro fertilization IVF may be an option. IVF is a procedure where your doctor extracts semen and injects it directly into eggs that have been removed from your partner.
This is an invasive procedure, but it can be an effective method for pregnancy. Talk with your doctor if you and your partner are ready to become pregnant. Your sperm is usually healthier the younger you are. Your body is always producing new sperm, so changes to your diet or lifestyle can impact the health of your future sperm, including:.
Some natural supplements and vitamins may be helpful for promoting normal sperm morphology too. Sperm morphology is only one of many possible causes. There are many medical conditions that could make conceiving difficult. Conditions like varicoceles , infections, and hormonal imbalances can affect fertility. Even being diagnosed with celiac disease can be a factor. Being exposed to chemicals or radiation at work or in your home can affect your sperm, and in turn your fertility.
Ask about any lifestyle changes you could start today, and take it from there. Sperm isn't a good alternative to proper skin care. It isn't going to clear up your acne or reduce the appearance of fine lines, among other misguided…. How long can sperm live outside the body? Which sperm and pregnancy myths are true and which are false? Many factors, including environment, your…. You can do a lot of prep work to make the perfect sleep environment.
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You can feel this pain in just one area of the body, such…. Tenosynovial giant cell tumor TGCT is a group of rare tumors that form in the joints. It's not cancer. What are sperm morphology ranges? What is the relationship between sperm morphology and fertility? Does small-headed morphology mean IVF? Can you improve sperm morphology? Your body is always producing new sperm, so changes to your diet or lifestyle can impact the health of your future sperm, including: losing weight exercising regularly avoiding heavy drinking, tobacco use, or illegal drugs wearing loose cotton boxers Some natural supplements and vitamins may be helpful for promoting normal sperm morphology too.
What are other possible causes of male fertility? Medical conditions There are many medical conditions that could make conceiving difficult. Environmental concerns Being exposed to chemicals or radiation at work or in your home can affect your sperm, and in turn your fertility.
Maintain a healthy weight, or lose weight if you are overweight or obese. Manage or reduce emotional stress. And 10 Other FAQs. How to Fall Asleep in 10, 60, or Seconds. Do You Live with Anxiety? Here Are 11 Ways to Cope. Read this next. Is Sperm Actually Good for Skin? Medically reviewed by Justin Choi, MD. How to Fall Asleep in 10, 60, or Seconds You can do a lot of prep work to make the perfect sleep environment.
Male infertility. Sperm morphology refers to the size and shape of individual sperm. The average pair of male gonads is capable of producing millions of sperm every day and while they may be prolific, they are woefully underwhelming when it comes to quality. One of the important parameters in the test is the morphology that is the shape and size of the sperm. A proper morphology is important, since the alterations can have a genetic cause , being the morphology a reflection of the mentioned cause. According to Cooper 68 , it is clear that retention of cytoplasmic material on spermatozoa, as seen in air dried and stained semen smears, can be associated with impaired sperm function.
Normal sperm morphology. Evaluation of sperm morphology
It is not clear whether this will result in fertilization and viable pregnancies. However, the substitution of sulfasalazine with mesalazine has resulted in improved semen quality and the reduction of the megalo heads, subsequently resulting in viable pregnancies Elongation is generally recognized as a stress-induced sperm morphology aberration, and is prevalent especially in MAGI and in the presence of a varicocele Pyriform heads are also included under elongation of spermatozoa.
Sperm elongation is accompanied by severe structural as well as DNA damage. The sperm nuclear anomalies are also associated with anomalies of the neck region, persistence of cytoplasmic residual material and an increased frequency of chromosomal aneuploidies, together with impaired chromatin compaction, possibly because of meiotic non-disjunction during spermatogenesis Low ICSI fertilization rates have also been found in men with severely elongated spermatozoa compared with other sperm morphology abnormalities However, when the MAGI is treated with long-term antibiotics or the varicocele is treated with a varicocelectomy, semen characteristics, including sperm morphology, can improve and pregnancies can result In case of varicocelectomies, in which no substantial improvement in semen quality is observed, pregnancies do still occur because sperm DNA quality improves because of the reduction of ROS production following the varicocelectomy The presence, size and terminology of the cytoplasmic droplets or cytoplasmic residues are controversial.
Recently, Cooper et al. According to Cooper 68 , it is clear that retention of cytoplasmic material on spermatozoa, as seen in air dried and stained semen smears, can be associated with impaired sperm function. It is clear from this article and from our own experience 69 that no amount of cytoplasmic material should be present on a normal spermatozoon and, if observed, it should be regarded as an abnormality, regardless of the size or amount of cytoplasmic material present. Cooper 68 also suggested that the correct term to be used for the presence of cytoplasmic material should be 'excess cytoplasmic residues' or cytoplasmic residues.
The presence of cytoplasmic residues is associated with sperm immaturity and especially the production of ROS, with subsequent sperm DNA damage; although IVF pregnacies may occur, decreased pregnancy rates are reported The earlier sections showed that sperm size, and therefore sperm measurement, is a very important aspect of the sperm morphology evaluation process.
However, the measurements proposed by Eliasson 30 , and adopted in the WHO manuals 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 and other publications 12 are in need of re-evaluation, because the range allowed, especially the normal head length of 3. Our own experience indicates that the head length for normal spermatozoa may vary between 4.
Alternative measurements have been proposed by several authors, such as Katz et al. The new WHO manual no longer refers to the 'old' sperm measurements, but states that head dimensions of 77 Papanicolaou-stained semen smears measured with a computerized system, have a median length of 4. Although not actually a sperm morphology parameter, determination of the presence of leukocytes, especially polymorphonuclear leukocytes, is an important aspect of the sperm morphology evaluation procedure However, an abnormal spermatozoon may have only one specific abnormality or any combination of two to four abnormalities, as described above.
The TZI was introduced to reflect the mean number of abnormalities per abnormal spermatozoon. The usefulness of the TZI seems to be limited, and it is seldom used in the literature as a tool in decision-making with regard to possible treatment of patients because it does not indicate a specific dominant abnormality present in a specific semen sample.
Following a literature search and on the basis of an analysis of our own data, we concluded that the TZI has little predictive value for in vivo and IVF outcomes The lack of standardization in the EQC schemes is illustrated in the article by Cooper et al.
On its own, the new proposed very low normal value may not provide a strong predictive value for a male's fertility potential, as originally reported for sperm morphology evaluated according to strict criteria The normal WHO value for sperm morphology is based on Papanicolaou-stained smears.
Another set of normal cut-off values needs to be established for rapid staining methods because the literature indicates that higher normal values are obtained in Diff-Quik-stained semen samples compared with the same samples stained with the Papanicolaou method On the other hand, morphologically normal-appearing spermatozoa should also be further investigated for normal sperm function and DNA content because morphological normality does not necessarily imply normal sperm function 80 , National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Asian J Androl v. Asian J Androl. Published online Jan Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Keywords: male fertility potential, normal cut-off values, semen analysis, sperm morphology evaluation, strict criteria, WHO manual. History of sperm morphology evaluation The interest in sperm morphology as a tool in the evaluation of a man's fertility potential started in the early s, when it became accepted that normal and pathological sperm forms could appear simultaneously in a semen sample 2.
Liberal approach Human males exhibit extreme heterogeneity, or pleomorphism, of sperm morphology among 13 and even within specific males Strict Tygerberg criteria The strict approach for sperm morphology evaluation was conceptualized in the late s and early s, as described by Menkveld in 11 and Menkveld et al.
Evolution of WHO criteria for sperm morphology evaluation There was no clear textual description for morphologically normal spermatozoa in the 1st WHO manual published in 6 , except in some legends for the color plates in which it is mentioned that 'the germinal cell classifications are based on those proposed by MacLeod,' thus following the liberal approach.
Open in a separate window. Obtained from the lower fifth centile value. Comparison of the proposed WHO value with recently published normal sperm morphology values As early as and , Van Zyl et al. Table 2 Comparison of fifth World Health Organization WHO manual for normal morphology values with recently published literature values.
Figure 1. Introduction of additional criteria for sperm morphology evaluation The original description of sperm abnormalities, as described, for example, by MacLeod and Gold 16 , and Freund 44 , concerned head abnormalities only. Negative environmental factors Carlson et al. Genetically determined sperm defects Globozoospermia One of the best-known genetically determined sperm sterilizing defects or patterns is globozoospermia.
Short tail syndrome In some semen samples, the spermatozoa present with abnormalities of the spermatozoa tail and neck region. Large-headed spermatozoa These spermatozoa present with severely abnormal megalo heads and multiple tails, and are observed in the ejaculate and testicular biopsies Non-genetic sperm morphology aberrations The second group, with unspecified or non-genetically determined sperm defects or patterns caused by environmental or other stress factors, including medication, differs from the group with genetically determined permanent sperm defects, which will not respond to treatment.
Megalo heads Megalo heads can also be caused by the use of medicine, such as sulfasalazine, for the treatment of ulcerative colitis 59 and Crohn's disease Elongated spermatozoa Elongation is generally recognized as a stress-induced sperm morphology aberration, and is prevalent especially in MAGI and in the presence of a varicocele Sperm measurements The earlier sections showed that sperm size, and therefore sperm measurement, is a very important aspect of the sperm morphology evaluation process.
Detection of leukocytes Although not actually a sperm morphology parameter, determination of the presence of leukocytes, especially polymorphonuclear leukocytes, is an important aspect of the sperm morphology evaluation procedure Standardization of international external quality control schemes The lack of standardization in the EQC schemes is illustrated in the article by Cooper et al.
References World Health Organisation. Human Spermatozoa in Assisted Reproduction. Carnforth: Parthenon Publishing; , p89— Cary HW. Examination of semen with reference to gynaecological aspects.
Observations on the seminal micro-pathology of bulls. Cornell Vet. Sperm morphology in relation to fertility. Am J Obstet Gynecol. WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and semen-cervical mucus interaction, 1st edn. WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and semen-cervical mucus interaction, 2nd edn.
WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction, 3rd edn. WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction, 4th edn.
Methodological aspects of sperm morphology evaluation: comparison between strict and liberal criteria. Fertil Steril. An investigation of environmental influences on spermatogenesis and semen parameters [PhD dissertation in Afrikaans ]. The evaluation of morphological characteristics of human spermatozoa according to stricter criteria. Human Reprod. Sperm morphology assessment—historical perspectives and current opinions.
J Androl. Individualism in the seminal picture of infertile men. The male factor in fertility and infertility. Sperm morphology in fertile and infertile marriage.
The clinical interpretation of semen analyses among applicants for sterility studies. Sperm selection capacity of the human zona pellucida. Mol Reprod Dev.
Morphology of spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida of human oocytes that failed to fertilize in vitro. J Fertil Reprod. Agents Affecting Fertility. London: Churchill; , p93— Eliasson R. Progress in Infertility, 2nd edn. Boston: Little Brown Co. Oligozoospermia: a seven-year survey of the incidence, chromosomal aberrations, treatment and pregnancy rate. Int J Fertil. Menkveld R, Kruger TF. Basic semen analysis The Tygerberg experience.
Human Spermatozoa in Assisted Reproduction, 2nd edn. Carnforth: Parthenon Publishing; Menkveld R. The basic semen analysis Chapter 9. Male Infertility. Diagnosis and Treatment. Oxon: Informa Healthcare. Standards for investigation of human semen. Oligozoospermia: recent prognosis and outcome of 73 pregnancies in oligozoospermia couples. Sperm morphological features as a prognostic factor in in vitro fertilization.
Predictive value of abnormal sperm morphology in in vitro fertilization. Sperm morphology assessment using strict criteria and male fertility under in-vivo conditions of conception. Hum Reprod. Semen parameters in a fertile versus subfertile population: a need for a change in the interpretation of semen testing. Semen Quality and human fertility: a prospective study with health couples. Semen parameters including WHO and strict criteria morphology, in a fertile and subfertile population: an effort towards standardisation of in vivo thresholds.
A study of semen parameters with emphasis on sperm morphology in a fertile population: an attempt to develop clinical thresholds. Sperm morphology, motility and concentration in fertile and infertile men.
N Engl J Med. Semen parameters in Norwegian fertile men. Int J Androl. Predictive ability of strict and WHO sperm morphology criteria for in vitro fertilization. Aust J Med Sci. Possible changes in male fertility over a year period. Arch Androl. Reassessment of sperm morphology of archival semen smears from the period — Standards for the rating of human sperm morphology.
Fertilization in mammals. Sci Am. Acrosomal morphology as a novel criterion for male fertility diagnosis: relation with acrosin activity, morphology strict criteria and fertilization in vitro.
Evidence for declining quality of semen during past 50 years. Br Med J. Clinical correlates of environmental endocrine disruptors. Trends Endocrinol Metab.
The question of declining sperm density revisited: an analysis of studies published — Environ Health Perspect. Male accessory gland infection as a possible additional cause for the declining trend in semen parameter values. Short communication: an intracytoplasmic sperm injection with a globozoospermic male. J Assist Reprod Genet. Genetic sperm defects and consanguinity. Abnormal sperm morphology may lead to male infertility. Ultimately, your doctor will look at sperm morphology together with count and motility, as well as any other tests you might take, to make an informed judgement about your fertility potential.
Abnormal morphology may make some kinds of infertility treatments less effective. Normally, when IVF is performed sperm and egg are combined in a lab dish and left to fertilize, hopefully forming an embryo. This part of the process can fail as a result of abnormal sperm morphology. If you are planning to try in vitro fertilization and you know that sperm morphology is an issue, you may want to consider intracytoplasmic sperm injection , commonly called ICSI.
In this procedure, eggs and sperm are harvested from the man and woman, and a single good-quality sperm is injected directly into an egg. Ultimately, male infertility problems are dynamic and you should see a male fertility specialist, typically an urologist or andrologist.
Need a good recommendation for a doctor? Get in touch with us. Contributor, Altora Health Haig is interested in taking the latest research into health and fertility topics, and transforming it into educational content that is accessible for all. Altora Health takes your privacy very seriously. Join our community of over 10, monthly visitors taking charge of their reproductive health. Get Started. Male Fertility. Normal Sperm Morphology Range A normal sperm has an oval head about micrometers long and 2.
Get Treatment for Motility and Morphology Issues Ultimately, male infertility problems are dynamic and you should see a male fertility specialist, typically an urologist or andrologist.
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An abnormal sperm count may also indicate an underlying health condition. Anything less than 15 million sperm per milliliter, or 39 million sperm per ejaculate, is considered low. A low sperm count is often referred to as oligospermia.
A high, or above average, sperm count is over million sperm per millimeter. You can determine your sperm count through a semen analysis. The number, shape, and mobility of sperm are important for testing for male factor infertility.
Your doctor may recommend testing up to three samples of sperm at different visits to get an accurate analysis. At-home tests only test for the number of sperm. Talk to your doctor if you are interested in a full analysis. They also experienced a higher frequency of metabolic syndrome, or higher chance of developing diabetes , heart disease , and stroke.
Sperm count can affect fertility because your chance of getting your partner pregnant decreases with a lower sperm count. Problems with the quality of sperm can also affect your chances of getting a woman pregnant. Male infertility factor, often due to a low sperm count, is a common reason many couples have trouble conceiving. But couples may also experience other health issues that can affect fertility. In some cases, infertility may be due to female factors, like:.
Lack of conception may also be the result of not trying to conceive for long enough. In many cases, it can take six months to a year to get pregnant when there are no fertility concerns. If you are over 35, and you and your partner have been trying to conceive for six months, your doctor may refer you to a fertility specialist. If you have been trying to conceive for over one year, and you and your partner are under 35, see your doctor for a referral.
While many causes of a low sperm count require medical intervention, lifestyle choices can also factor in. The following may improve sperm count:. There are many factors that can affect your sperm count, including lifestyle choices or underlying medical conditions. If you have a low sperm count, your doctor may recommend options for you to raise your sperm count, or they may refer you to a urologist or fertility specialist, if needed.
If you have a low sperm count and are hoping to conceive a child, there are many fertility options available today, including a range of treatments like:. Does pineapple change how your sperm tastes? How does sperm count change by age? As the male reproductive cell, sperm is a key aspect of human fertility. A healthy sperm count can help increase your chances for conception. Here are seven things you can do to promote healthy semen.
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You can feel this pain in just one area of the body, such…. What Is a Normal Sperm Count? Understanding your semen analysis. WHO reference range Total sperm count in ejaculate 39— million Ejaculate volume 1.
Why does sperm count matter? How does sperm count affect fertility? In some cases, infertility may be due to female factors, like: low ovarian reserve a blocked fallopian tube endometriosis Lack of conception may also be the result of not trying to conceive for long enough.
Are there treatments for low sperm count? Infertility or a low sperm count may be caused by a number of factors, including: genetics past surgeries general health sexually transmitted diseases Your doctor can assess your sperm count and recommend treatment. Possible treatment options include: Surgery. If a bacterial infection is affecting your sperm count or fertility, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics. Medication or counseling. These may be used for sexual intercourse problems such as premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction.
Hormone treatments and medications. For cases where high or low hormone levels influence infertility, hormone treatments may help. Improving sperm count. The following may improve sperm count: Lose weight.
Being obese or overweight can cause a low sperm count. Try to maintain a healthy lifestyle through diet and exercise. Take vitamin supplements. Ask your doctor for a blood test to test for vitamin deficiencies. They may recommend adding new foods to your diet, or taking supplements to help restore vitamin and mineral levels.
Avoid substance abuse, including heavy drinking and drug or tobacco use. Wear loose, cotton boxers. If you have a low sperm count and are hoping to conceive a child, there are many fertility options available today, including a range of treatments like: intrauterine insemination IUI in vitro fertilization IVF IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI Talk to your doctor about your concerns and options.
How Is Sperm Produced? How to Fall Asleep in 10, 60, or Seconds. Read this next. How to Fall Asleep in 10, 60, or Seconds You can do a lot of prep work to make the perfect sleep environment. Do You Live with Anxiety? Here Are 11 Ways to Cope. Musculoskeletal Pain.